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While many stories of the American frontier are tall tales, the real gunslingers had fascinating histories. Some were courageous lawmen or heroes for hire, and others were wily con artists or violent outlaws. Here are the ten greatest.

10. Billy the Kid
Billy the Kid was born William Henry McCarty, Jr., in 1859, probably in New York City. Orphaned as a teenager, he moved West in search of work. By 1877, McCarty was a cattle guard on John Tunstall’s ranch in Lincoln County, New Mexico. Tunstall was in a business feud with other local merchants that escalated in 1878, when a posse led by Sheriff William Brady murdered Tunstall. To retaliate, McCarty joined a gang called the Regulators, eventually becoming its leader. The Regulators’ first major victory was the murder of Sheriff Brady. When it was clear that the Regulators had lost the Lincoln County War, McCarty fled to Texas. There, he was caught and sentenced to death, but he killed his guards and escaped from jail. Sheriff Pat Garrett hunted McCarty down and killed him in 1881. McCarty probably killed fewer than ten men, but after his death, he gained credit for many more.



9. Isom Dart
Many African-Americans sought new lives in the West, but few became gun-slinging outlaws. Born a slave in 1849 and brought to Texas during the Civil War, Dart quickly gained a reputation as a conniving horse and cattle rustler. Known as the “Black Fox,” Dart’s preferred weapons were his wit and his expert horsemanship, although he often became embroiled in barroom gunfights. Dart was such a successful outlaw that only the best could stop him: Tom Horn, the great assassin, was hired to shoot him dead in 1900.



8. Wyatt Earp

Wyatt Earp was born in Illinois in 1848. He set out west with his brothers, Virgil and Morgan, and his friend Doc Holliday, working in several frontier towns before settling in Tombstone, Arizona, in 1879. Outlaw cowboys plagued Tombstone, stealing mules and robbing stagecoaches. Earp first confronted the Cowboys as a deputy sheriff, then as a freelance lawman. After several minor skirmishes, Virgil Earp learned that the Cowboys had assembled men and arms at the O.K. Corral. On October 26, 1881, the Earps and Holliday ambushed the Cowboys there, killing three. The Earps were tried for murder but not convicted, and the Cowboys retaliated by killing Morgan Earp. After this, Wyatt Earp fled Tombstone on a “vendetta ride,” killing outlaws as he headed west. He led a quiet life afterward, but Tombstone made him a legend, especially because he was never wounded in a gunfight.


7. Belle Starr
Known as the Queen of the Oklahoma Outlaws, this femme fatale was one of the Wild West’s great criminal masterminds. Born Myra Maybelle Shirley in 1848, she followed her first husband, Jim Reed, into a series of outlaw gangs. After Reed died, she continued her life of crime, slinging twin pistols while wearing fashionable dresses. She became the brains behind many criminal operations, assembling bands of outlaws, harboring fugitives, and fencing stolen goods. In 1889, she was ambushed and murdered, but she had so many enemies that her killer was never identified.





6. James “Killer” Miller
Jim Miller began his life of crime early: in 1874, when he was eight years old, he was arrested but not prosecuted for the murder of his grandparents. At nineteen, he murdered his brother-in-law but was not convicted. He moved to Pecos, Texas, and reinvented himself as a devout family man and Texas Ranger. But he kept killing, now as a hired assassin. His victims included Pat Garrett, killer of Billy the Kid. His cruelty caught up with him in 1909, after his arrest for the murder of Gus Bobbitt. During his trial, a mob broke into the jail and lynched him.




5. Tom Horn
Tom Horn was the most deadly hired gun in the West. Born in 1860, he served as a civilian scout in the Apache Wars, where he witnessed Geronimo’s surrender. Afterward, he became a detective in Denver but was fired from his agency after murdering two train robbers. This act of frontier justice led to a career as an assassin for hire - a career so successful that no one knows how many men he killed. In 1902, he was convicted for one murder he probably didn’t commit, that of 14-year-old Willie Nickell, and he was hanged in 1903.




4. Wild Bill Hickok
James Butler Hickok was born in Illinois in 1837 and moved West after a brawl made him a fugitive. He served in the Civil War but was discharged, a pattern that repeated in his many sheriff jobs - he was hired to keep peace and then fired for murdering men. Hickok won several legendary shootouts and became notorious for his quick draw. Perhaps his most famous ocnfrontation was with Davis Tutt, a former friend with whom he’d fought over women and money. Following a card game, Hickok shot and killed Tutt from 75 yards away. Hickock died as he lived: in 1876, he was fatally shot in the back of the head during a poker game for reasons that are still unknown.




3. Calamity Jane
Martha Jane Canary was one of the toughest women in the West as well as one of the greatest exaggerators of her own deeds. She was born in 1852 in Missouri, and both of her parents died when she was a teenager, leaving her to raise her younger siblings in the wild Wyoming territory. In the early 1870s, she became a military scout, fighting against Indian uprisings, and probably a prostitute as well. She followed Wild Bill Hickok to Deadwood, South Dakota in 1876, and she remained there after his death, protecting pioneers’ stagecoaches from Indians and outlaws. For the last ten years of her life, she traveled in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, spinning tall tales about her adventures.




2. John Wesley Hardin
Hardin might have been the bloodiest gunslinger in the West: he murdered at least 27 people and took credit for many more. He killed a former slave named Mage in 1868, when he was only fifteen. From then on, Hardin was a fugitive, gambling and picking fights throughout Texas. Once, while staying in a hotel in Abilene, he fired through the wall to permanently silence the snoring man next door. The law finally caught up with Hardin in 1874, when he fatally shot Deputy Sheriff Charles Webb. While in prison for Webb’s murder, Hardin studied religion and law, and he was freed in 1894. One year later, John Selman Jr. confronted Hardin in a saloon and shot him dead, claiming self-defense.




1. Jesse James
Born in 1847, Jesse James used good looks and brazen crimes to become a celebrity in his own time. James and his brother, Frank, got their start in the Civil War as Confederate guerrillas. After the war, they robbed banks Jesse killed the cashier during their 1869 robbery of the Daviess County Savings Association, making himself the most famous outlaw in America. The brothers joined Cole Younger to form the James-Younger Gang, plotting public hold-ups that were as much performance as crime. A botched heist in Minnesota disbanded the gang, and James’s new partners in crime, the Ford brothers, became his downfall. The governor of Missouri paid the Fords to betray James; in 1882, they shot him dead.

Productivity is a big factor in success. You have to be able to focus in order to produce results. For me it’s a huge obstacle some days. At times I want to be checking my email, glancing at my twitter, responding to Facebook chats, or messages, and monitoring all my notifications on my Facebook, and my cell phone.

When you are in college, and working towards a degree you are paying thousands of dollars for productivity needs to be one of your focuses. This is a major investment in your future. Here are the three things I’ve done to conquer my productivity problem.

1) Embrace The Pomodoro Technique

The Pomodoro Technique is a time management method developed by Francesco Cirillo in the late 1980s. The technique uses a timer to break down periods of work into 25-minute intervals called ‘Pomodori’ (from the Italian word for ‘tomatoes’) separated by breaks. Closely related to concepts such as timeboxing and iterative and incremental development used in software design, the method has been adopted in pair programming contexts.[2] The method is based on the idea that frequent breaks can improve mental agility. There are five basic steps to implementing the technique:
1. decide on the task to be done
2. set the pomodoro (timer) to 25 minutes
3. work on the task until the timer rings; record with an x
4. take a short break (3-5 minutes)
5. every four “pomodori” take a longer break (15–30 minutes)

I personally use FocusBooster to set my 25 minute blocks of time and time them.

2) Plan your day

Every morning my first 25 minute block of time is plan my day ahead. I open my calendar and check for appointments, and then I plan out the 3 most important tasks to be accomplished for the day. I then set out to accomplish them in 25 minute chunks of time carefully planning lunch, and dinner. I turn off my cell phone and attack work. After my first 25 minute block of time I then reward myself with some email time, and then after my second some facebook. I generally can clear email, and Facebook in 5 minute blocks. Lastly during lunch I clear Twitter, and plan my tweets ahead for the next day, you can even do this with Facebook too. Nobody really cares about the spontaneous in between posts but your well thought out quotes, and sayings those are the ones that get the most interaction anyhow.

3) Eat properly

Lastly one of the key things that boosted my productivity is eating better. If I didn’t have time to eat a proper meal I will always make a quick protein shake, and if I need an extra boost I throw in an avocado to the shake.

Some of today’s most inspirational leaders come from the worlds of business and politics. Some of them are even entertainers first and leaders second. In any case, these folks are the ones that everyone else looks up to, and they’re the ones leading us bravely into the future.

It’s one thing to be a leader; it’s another thing entirely to be an inspirational one. Plenty of people lead others, but fewer manage to inspire them too. For the sake of this list, we’re strictly focusing on leaders who inspire the world at large and not necessarily just those who follow them. In other words, these people are leaving indelible marks on society, and they are sure to be remembered for centuries to come.

Barack Obama

The current president is the American dream writ large. He not only rose from being raised by a single mother to becoming the leader of the free world, but he managed to do so as a minority. As the first African-American U.S. president, Obama instantly inspired millions of people around the world. On the night he was elected, people around the globe celebrated, and the famous scene from Grant Park in Chicago was played out in several locations across the world. Since becoming the 44th president, Obama has ended one war and is working to end another, and he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to boot. Whether you agree with his politics or not, there’s no denying how inspirational he is.

Bill Gates

When people think of millionaires and billionaires, images of Ebenezer Scrooge often spring to mind. Bill Gates has smashed those perceptions by being one of the most generous billionaires in history. As the founder of Microsoft, Gates could have taken a miserly approach to his great fortune. Instead, he’s always been steadfastly committed to giving back. He and his wife run the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which works on improving education in the U.S., fighting infectious diseases and improving the food supply around the world. Gates has heralded in an era of kinder, gentler, more giving capitalism.

Sir Richard Branson

As the founder and chairman of the Virgin Group, which is made up of more than 400 companies, Branson is a force to be reckoned with in the business world. Instead of using that power to push along his own agenda, he’s been using to advance science. A few years ago, Branson founded Virgin Galactic, which is going to give civilians the chance to travel in spaceships and see outer space. Bookings are currently being accepted, and trips are scheduled to begin toward the end of this year. With NASA’s space program out of commission, Branson is a beacon of light for anyone who loves space.

Oprah Winfrey

Though her long-running show is now over, Winfrey still manages to make waves. Unlike many celebrities, her waves tend to be of the humanitarian variety. Although she clearly isn’t out to achieve world peace or to prompt sweeping reforms, Winfrey has long been the champion of those who are down on their luck. She comes from very humble beginnings and uses her story as proof that people can achieve their goals. As a black woman, she’s a clear inspiration to African Americans and women, but her influence truly extends across all genders, races and ages.

Larry Page and Sergey Brin

No list of today’s most inspirational leaders would be complete without a mention of the founders of Google. This dynamic duo truly changed the world with their revolutionary search engine, and they’ve never rested on their laurels. With every passing year, Google embarks on some kind of new technology or exciting innovation. It’s gotten to the point that it’s impossible to talk about the Internet or technology without discussing Google too.

Jeff Bezos

If a lot of people from the technology field have made the list, it’s because technology plays such a prominent role in modern life. As the founder of Amazon, Bezos has not only changed the way in which people shop for things - he’s changed the way they enjoy books entirely too. With the debut of the Kindle, Bezos truly cemented his place in the historical record. The Kindle Fire has even reduced some of the iPad’s luster, which is no easy feat. You’d be hard-pressed to find someone who doesn’t use Amazon at least every now and then, and that’s pretty inspirational.

Mohammed Nasheed

Unless you’re from the Maldives or follow environmental issues closely, you may not have heard of Nasheed. He served as president of that country from 2008 to 2012, and he pulled that off after being imprisoned dozens of times for various political reasons. During his tenure, he sought to make his tiny country completely carbon neutral. While working toward that goal, he inspired leaders around the world. Since then, the concept of carbon neutrality is being taken more seriously than ever, and there’s little doubt that Nasheed’s influence played a huge part in that.

Sonia Sotomayor

For many years, white males from wealthy families were the only ones who could hope to ascend to the Supreme Court. The highest court in the land has become a lot more diverse, fortunately, and Sotomayor is one of its most interesting and exciting success stories. She grew up poor in the Bronx and was raised by her widowed mother. Based on her early life alone, no one would ever predict that she’d eventually become a Supreme Court justice. As if that’s not inspiring enough, she’s the first Hispanic to earn a place on the court, so she’s smashed away that barrier too.

Bill Clinton

Former U.S. presidents usually spend their waning years doing philanthropic things and wielding their power to make the world a better place. Bill Clinton has gone above and beyond the call of duty. In fact, he still has so much respect around the world that he’s been called on to help out when crises occur. There’s little doubt that his influence played a huge role in Barack Obama’s reelection, and he and his wife continue to be extremely influential around the world. If you’re not convinced that he’s inspirational, just watch him speak sometime.

Warren Buffet

The list is rounded out by yet another wealthy businessman. Buffet was used his power for the forces of good, however, and many believe his influence helped to keep the recent financial crisis from being a complete and total disaster. Buffet helped out a handful of major corporations that were struggling during the crisis, and he played a big part in keeping investor confidence from plummeting drastically. Buffet has done well in America, but he’s given back a lot too.

Interestingly enough, some of the most inspirational leaders in the world had very humble beginnings. This highlights the fact that just about anyone can become an important member of modern society. That’s especially true in the United States. There’s nothing more inspiring than someone who goes above and beyond the call of duty simply to help others or a person who strives to improve the world through amazing technological advancements.

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Brains versus brawn. The pen versus the sword. Might against intellect. It’s a battle that seems to have raged forever. Often, the assumption is that it’s one or the other – yet this is by no means always the case. Practically all professional boxers are well-honed athletes, but some have also proven they’ve got just as much power in their brains as they have in their biceps. It’s not all black and white: there is room for grey matter.

It’s the Ukrainian Klitschko brothers who’ve most famously wowed the world with both their academic prowess and their skills in the boxing ring. Wladimir Klitschko was awarded a PhD in Sports Science in 2001, while his older brother, Vitali, is nicknamed Dr. Ironfist and is the first pro boxing world champ with a PhD – just beating Wladimir to the punch, you might say. Vitali is currently the WBC heavyweight champion and a member of the Ukrainian parliament; and current WBA (Super), WBO, IBF and IBO heavyweight champ Wladimir speaks four languages.

Yet there are other big-name fighters who’ve managed to cut it in university and show their brainpower, too. Read on for 10 boxing champions who you’d never guess had college degrees.

10. Audley Harrison – Sports Science and Leisure Management

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London-born boxer Audley Harrison rose to prominence at the 2000 Sydney Olympics when he won an Olympic gold medal in the super heavyweight division, becoming the first British fighter to do so. Yet for Harrison, it was another accolade in an already glittering amateur career. In 1997, he became Britain’s super heavyweight amateur champ; then, the following year, he kept the title and collected a gold medal at the 1998 Commonwealth Games.

While his interest in boxing continued to develop at college, Harrison managed to balance it with his academic pursuits. And in 1999, he graduated from Brunel University, England with a BSc Honors degree in Sports Science with Leisure Management.

Unfortunately, since turning professional following his Olympic success, Harrison’s career has been inconsistent. And despite the fact that he won the European heavyweight title in April 2010, his bout with David Haye on November 13 that same year became notorious when he only managed to land one punch. Even so, the science graduate rejected calls to retire, and on October 12, 2012, he was knocked out by David Price 82 seconds into the first round. Harrison, now aged 41, is still keen to continue boxing. Maybe he should use his head and think again.

9. James “Bonecrusher” Smith – Business Administration

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With 32 knockouts and 44 wins during his professional career, James “Bonecrusher” Smith lived up to his nickname. But, in between crushing bones, Smith was also the first heavyweight-boxing champ to have been awarded a college degree.

Smith achieved an associate’s degree in Business Administration from James Sprunt Community College, North Carolina in 1973. Furthermore, two years on he followed that up with a Business Administration bachelor’s degree from Shaw University. Then in 1981, after competing as an amateur boxer, Smith went pro at the age of 28.

Despite nine straight knock-outs, and the fact that he managed to defeat the then unbeaten Frank Bruno in 1984, a succession of dropped points decisions led Smith to visit a psychiatrist. It seemed to work, though, as important decision wins over Jesse Ferguson and David Bey led to Smith claiming the WBA belt from Tim Witherspoon. However, in 1987 he lost the belt to Mike Tyson in a unification tournament.

Smith eventually retired at 46, but it seems there was no doubt his academic background would come back into play. Smith was ordained as a minister in 1996, and he’s also done a considerable amount of charity work, including his establishment of Champion For Kids Inc., which provides high school students with scholarships.

8. Nathan Cleverly – Mathematics

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Nathan Cleverly is a 25-year-old Welsh boxer and rising star who’s already had a string of successes in the ring. Undefeated, he’s currently the WBO light heavyweight world champion and a previous holder of the European, British and Commonwealth light heavyweight titles.

Before Cleverly’s November 2012 WBO title defense in Los Angeles, his belt was brought to the ring by Mickey Rourke and Tom Jones. But it’s not all been glitz and glamor for the Welshman. While competing for his European and Commonwealth titles, Cleverly was also completing a BSc in Mathematics at Cardiff University. Speaking to the BBC, the young boxer admits that the schedule was tough: “As well as crunching numbers, I’ve had to fight for the British, Commonwealth and European titles as well, and spend most evenings hitting the heavy bag and doing numerous press ups and sit ups,” he says.

Still, with his degree behind him, the appropriately named Cleverly is expected to make the fourth defense of his WBO title on March 16, 2013, against Robin Krasniqi.

7. Calvin Brock – Finance

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Calvin “The Boxing Banker” Brock’s nickname might not strike fear into his opponents like other boxing pseudonyms, but it’s well earned. The name was bestowed upon him by an advertisement for the Bank of America, but it was no random celebrity endorsement. Brock was a former employee of the Bank and achieved a Finance degree from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. He also looked after his own portfolio.

Brock had always been passionate about boxing, and he went on to enjoy a successful amateur career. He won the National Golden Gloves in the heavyweight class in 1998 and was crowned the US amateur champ in 1999. He then went on to compete at the 2000 Olympic Games.

Brock turned professional in 2001 and tasted considerable success, with 31 wins, 23 by knock-out. His biggest match-up was in November 2006, against IBF and IBO heavyweight champ Wladimir Klitschko in Madison Square Garden. The fight was his first professional title shot but also his first professional loss.

Sadly, Brock’s blossoming career was cut short the following year when one of his retinas was damaged during a fight. Following unsuccessful surgery, he was deemed legally blind in his right eye and hung up his gloves. However, he returned to the financial world and now operates as a commercial real estate agent.

6. John “Super D” Duplessis – Psychology (BA), Social Work (Master’s)

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John “Super D” Duplessis earned his nickname from the Superman costume he wore when he spoke to school kids. As he explained in a 1988 interview, “It’s because I think I can be a super role model for kids.” Duplessis earned recognition for his work with disabled children and against drug abuse. He was also highly respected in the ring.

Duplessis was a champion amateur boxer from the age of 10, and he turned professional in 1984. Trainer Lou Duva compared Duplessis to Sugar Ray Leonard. But sadly, Duplessis’ career came to an early end in 1995 when a bout left him legally blind.

Still, undeterred, Duplessis threw himself back into education. As a full-time student at Southern University in New Orleans, he graduated with a BA in Psychology in 2002, before achieving a Social Work master’s degree from the same institution three years later.

5. Chazz Witherspoon – Pharmaceutical Marketing

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In 2003, a year after he’d taken up boxing in his sophomore year at college, Chazz “The Gentleman” Witherspoon won the Pennsylvania State Golden Gloves title. The same year, he proceeded to come third at the National Police Athletic League Tournament. And continuing his impressive performances, he also won the Middle Atlantic Regional Tournament, gaining the accolade of “Most Outstanding Boxer,” which qualified him for the US Championships. When he came second at national level, Witherspoon became eligible to try out for the Olympics – but in the end, he traveled to Athens in 2004 as an alternate. Still, later that year, “The Gentleman” turned professional.

Witherspoon managed a run of 23 professional fights unbeaten, 15 of which ended in knockouts. A natural athlete, he had been offered three Division 1 basketball scholarships and two track scholarships when he graduated from Paulsboro High School in 1999. But, proving he had just as much brains as brawn, he instead opted for an academic scholarship at St. Joseph’s University in Pennsylvania, graduating with a degree in Pharmaceutical Marketing in May 2005 – a year after he’d turned professional in the ring.

4. Juan Díaz – Political Science

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Juan “Baby Bull” Díaz (left) qualified to represent Mexico at the 2000 Sydney Olympics on the back of a string of amateur successes. Unfortunately, aged just 16, he was deemed too young to compete. Even so, the young Mexican had his first professional fight in June of that year and went on knock out his opponents in his first five bouts. In all, he racked up 24 victories with no defeats on his way to his first world title challenge in 2004.

On July 17, 2021 Díaz beat Lakva Sim to claim the WBA lightweight title. But what makes Díaz’s accomplishments even more impressive is the fact that he maintained his studies. In 2001, he graduated from Houston’s Contemporary Learning Center, then went on to attain a bachelors degree in political science at the University of Houston–Downtown.

In 2011, at the age of 28, and with a record of 35 wins and four defeats, Díaz announced his retirement. He then enrolled at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Law School and hopes to become a lawyer. Díaz can also add “businessman” to his already impressive résumé, as he owns a radio production company and co-owns a trucking firm with his brother.

3. and 2. Carlos Palomino (Recreation Administration) and Armando Muniz (Spanish)

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On January 21, 1977, boxers Carlos Palomino (left) and Armando Muniz (right) made boxing history. The WBC welterweight clash was the first world title fight between two college graduates. This led Los Angeles Times columnist Jim Murray to describe the bout as “boxing’s finest intellectual hour since George Bernard Shaw wrote to Gene Tunney.” Palomino won the fight thanks to two knockdowns and a knockout in the last round.

Palomino had recently earned a degree in Recreation Administration at Long Beach State, while Muniz had a Spanish degree from California State Los Angeles and was studying for an Administration graduate degree. Fortunately, both athletes had ignored advice to concentrate on boxing, with Palomino holding that “athletic careers are pretty short and I’d still have a whole life ahead of me.”

Despite their schooling, the fighters’ boxing abilities seemed unaffected. What’s more, their 1977 meeting is remembered as one of the best bouts of that year. Palomino went on to win the 1978 rematch, as well – but both men will be remembered for together challenging the stereotype that boxers lack brains.

1. Juan Manuel Márquez – Accounting

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Juan Manuel Márquez may well be one of the most successful champion boxers to also hold a degree. The 39-year-old is currently the WBO light-welterweight champ and is the first Mexican-born boxer to become a world champion in four divisions. In all, Márquez has won seven world titles in five different weight classes, so it’s easy to see why he is called “Dinamita.”

Believed by some to be the greatest Mexican boxer of all time, Márquez still appears to be on top of his game. This was ably demonstrated in his fourth meeting with Manny Pacquiao, on December 8, 2012, when he convincingly knocked out Pacquiao, earning the WBO “Champion of the Decade” belt in the process.

Incredibly, Márquez has somehow also found time to earn an accounting degree. During a recent HBO question-and-answer session, he was asked what he might have become had he not been a professional fighter. His response: “I have an accounting degree, so I’d probably be an accountant!”

Bonus Entry: Vernon Forrest – Business Administration

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Nicknamed “The Viper,” Vernon Forrest started boxing when he was just nine years of age. Moreover, he achieved a 225-16 amateur record on his way to becoming the US junior welterweight champion at the age of 21.

Forrest was the first member of his family to graduate from high school and, what’s more, he gained a scholarship to Northern Michigan University to study Business Administration. He left college – but only to follow his dreams, as he also qualified for the 1992 Barcelona Olympics. Indeed, Forrest went into the Olympics as the gold medal favorite, but he suffered from food poisoning early in the competition. Even so, “The Viper” turned professional that same year.

Forrest’s career highlights included defeating Shane Mosley three times – once as an amateur and then twice as a professional. In 2002, he was crowned WBC welterweight champion and “fighter of the year” in Ring Magazine.

Forrest also later claimed the WBC light middleweight title from Sergio Mora, on September 14, 2008. Sadly, it was his final fight. On July 25, 2009, he was robbed and murdered in Atlanta, Georgia.

1. Be Like Water

“Be like water making its way through cracks. Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you shall find a way round or through it. If nothing within you stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves. Empty your mind, be formless. Shapeless, like water. If you put water into a cup, it becomes the cup. You put water into a bottle and it becomes the bottle. You put it in a teapot it becomes the teapot. Now, water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend.” ~Bruce Lee

Bruce Lee is considered to be the most influential martial artist and the greatest icon of martial arts cinema of all time. In the early 1946, he appeared in several films as a child actor. Lee received huge popularity across the United States in 1966-1967 with his role in the television series The Green Hornet after which he was starred in numerous movies until he died on 20th July 1973 in Hong Kong at the age of 32. He is also known for changing the way Asians were presented in American films.

2. The Guidance of Virtue

“Just as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the guidance of virtue.” – Buddha

Gautama Buddha was a spiritual guru who is remembered for his teachings on living an enlightened life. His teachings are known today as ‘Buddhism’. Though the actual date of his birth and death is uncertain but it is known that he was born a prince in the 6th century BC in northern India at a place called Lumbini (presently known as Nepal) at the foot of Mount Palpa in the Himalayan ranges and died in 480 B.C. at age of 80. His father Suddhodana was the king who ruled an Indian tribe Shakyas. His mother Maya died only after seven days of his birth and he was raised by his mother’s sister Mahaprajapati. At the age of 29, he left his home, family and kingdom to seek enlightenment and a way to get rid of universal suffering and pain of humanity.

3. Catch The Spirit Of The Great Pioneers

“To win the big stakes in this changed world, you must catch the spirit of the great pioneers of the past, whose dreams have given to civilization all that it has of value, the spirit that serves as the life-blood of our own country – your opportunity and mine, to develop and market our talents.” ― Napoleon Hill

Napoleon Hill is one of the greatest personal-success coaches who is best remembered for his work ‘Think and Grow Rich’ in 1937, which is one of the best-selling books of all time. The book has been read and mentioned by several renowned and successful successful personalities and remains the inspiration for millions of people worldwide. He pioneered and revolutionized ‘New Thoughts’ on personal beliefs and success. By showing some real-life examples on how an average person can accomplish their goals, he brought success in the reach of any person.

4. Every Morning Is A New Arrival

“This being human is a guest house. Every morning is a new arrival. A joy, a depression, a meanness, some momentary awareness comes as an unexpected visitor…Welcome and entertain them all. Treat each guest honorably. The dark thought, the shame, the malice, meet them at the door laughing, and invite them in. Be grateful for whoever comes, because each has been sent as a guide from beyond.” ― Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī, widely known as Rumi was a 13th-century Persian Muslim mystical poet and theologian. His devotional and inspiring poetry are his insightful experience of uplifting our consciousness for living a meaning and liberal life; in a nutshell, they enlighten us about divine life, and relieve the turbulent mind, distressed soul and devastated spirit. Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi and Mathnawi are among his most famous works. Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi is a collection of ghazals that has been named in the honor of Rumi’s greatest inspiration dervish Shamsuddin and Mathnawi is a collection of six volumes of poetry that demonstrates the diverse facets of spiritual life.

5. It is Between You And God

“People are often unreasonable and self-centered. Forgive them anyway. If you are kind, people may accuse you of ulterior motives. Be kind anyway. If you are honest, people may cheat you. Be honest anyway. If you find happiness, people may be jealous. Be happy anyway. The good you do today may be forgotten tomorrow. Do good anyway. Give the world the best you have and it may never be enough. Give your best anyway. For you see, in the end, it is between you and God. It was never between you and them anyway.” ― Mother Teresa

Born as Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, Mother Teresa dedicated her whole life serving the humanity; she is the symbol of compassion and love. It is known that she was highly fascinated by the lives of missionaries and their selfless services. By the age of 12, she was determined to live a religious life and devote herself to serve the poor and destitute. In 1950, she founded a Roman Catholic religious congregation ‘the Missionaries of Charity’, which is now active in 133 countries and has more than 4,500 sisters. The Missionaries of Charity takes care of the distressed, homeless, refugees, mentally ills, ex-prostitutes, abandoned children and aged, people with AIDS, and convalescent. In 1979, she received the Nobel Peace Prize for her significant contribution in assisting the poor to overcome their daily struggles for living better life.

6. Don’t Be Afraid Of Experience

“Experience life in all possible ways — good-bad, bitter-sweet, dark-light, summer-winter. Experience all the dualities. Don’t be afraid of experience, because the more experience you have, the more mature you become.” ― Osho

Born as Chandra Mohan Jain and later known as Acharya Rajneesh or Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh and later in 1980s as Osho was an Indian spiritual teacher who was internationally famous for his teachings. His concept and definition of ‘Sannyas’ was completely different from the conventional Eastern perspective, he initiated on self-exploration without renouncing the world, and promoted to have an open and better attitude towards sex which all together grabbed international attention. Osho was a professor at the Sanskrit College in Raipur in 1957, and the Professor of Philosophy at the University of Jabalpur until 1966. Later, he left his profession and traveled across India to awaken the human consciousness about the orthodox religion. His unorthodox and challenging attitude towards studies attracted people across the world.

7. God is Reflection Of Human Fraility

“I cannot imagine a God who rewards and punishes the objects of his creation, whose purposes are modeled after our own — a God, in short, who is but a reflection of human frailty. Neither can I believe that the individual survives the death of his body, although feeble souls harbor such thoughts through fear or ridiculous egotism.” ― Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein, a German-born theoretical physicist, is widely known for his significant contribution in developing the general theory of relativity, which proved revolutionary in physics. In 1921, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. Throughout his life, he has written countless articles, published dozens of books and worked in several different projects collaborating with other scientists, some of them were the Einstein refrigerator and the Bose–Einstein statistics. On 17 April 1955, he died after experiencing the internal bleeding.

8. Mistakes Do Not Make us Evil

“We are all mistaken sometimes; sometimes we do wrong things, things that have bad consequences. But it does not mean we are evil, or that we cannot be trusted ever afterward.” – Alison Croggon

Alison Croggon is an Australian poet, fantasy novelist, and playwright who emerged in the 1990s. She was aspired to be a writer and at the initial stage of her career she worked as a journalist for the Sydney Morning Herald. Her very first volume of poetry This is the Stone received worldwide attention, won the Anne Elder Award and the Mary Gilmore Prize. Her novella Navigatio received The Australian/Vogel Literary Award. She was honored as the Geraldine Pascall Critic of the Year in 2009. Besides being a Melbourne theatre critic for the national daily newspaper, The Australian, she maintains her blog.

9. The Brick Walls Are There For A Reason

“The brick walls are there for a reason. The brick walls are not there to keep us out. The brick walls are there to give us a chance to show how badly we want something. Because the brick walls are there to stop the people who don’t want it badly enough. They’re there to stop the other people.” ― Randy Pausch

American professor of computer science as well as human-computer interaction and design at Carnegie Mellon University Randolph Frederick Randy Pausch was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and grew up in Columbia, Maryland. He came into limelight after his last lecture “The Last Lecture: Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams” in 2007 at Carnegie Mellon, which led him to other reputed media appearances. In 2008, on July 25th, he died from pancreatic cancer.

10. The Greatest Blessings Are Within Us

“True happiness is to enjoy the present, without anxious dependence upon the future, not to amuse ourselves with either hopes or fears but to rest satisfied with what we have, which is sufficient, for he that is so wants nothing. The greatest blessings of mankind are within us and within our reach. A wise man is content with his lot, whatever it may be, without wishing for what he has not.” ― Seneca

Roman Stoic philosopher, dramatist and statesman Lucius Annaeus Seneca, who is best known as Seneca, was born in 4 BC in the southern Spanish city of Cordoba. Seneca was tutored to be an orator and lawyer in order to work in the the service of the state but later studied philosophy. He was accused of having a connection in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate the last of the Julio-Claudian emperors Nero and was subsequently forced to commit suicide in April 65 AD. Though his involvement was never proved.

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Starting a business doesn’t have to be a daunting task. In fact many of the best startups in the world started in college dorm rooms, or in their parents garages.

Have you heard of Dell, Facebook, Fedex, or Microsoft ?

All of these companies got there start in dorm rooms. It’s not impossible to start something and costs shouldn’t be an obstacle standing in your way. Here is a list of resources I’ve personally used to start businesses, and make a profit. All of them are free.

The best resource of all isn’t even on the list but it’s hustle.

Learning & Community
Hacker News
Code Academy
Startup Ideas from Ideawatch

Content Management System
WordPress
Free WordPress Themes

Analytics & Conversions
Google Analytics
W3Counter

Web Hosting
5GBFree

Digital Product Development
Scrivener for Ebook/Infoproduct Creation
Cacoo for Wireframes and Diagrams

Document Sharing
Google Docs

User Acquisition & Marketing
RankPay for Pay Per Performance SEO
Visual.ly for Infographics
MyBlogGuest for Guest Blogging
Content Facilitator for Guest Blogging
Social Contests for WordPress
Slideshare
Twitter
Empire Avenue

Email List Management
Mailchimp

Startup Funding
Indiegogo
Kabbage

The healthcare field is increasingly moving to digital formats. From medical records to reference materials, content is going electronic, online, and increasingly, becoming available on mobile devices. The iPad is an ideal platform for accessing these digital medical references because it is easy to carry into exams, to work with at home, and has a large screen that facilitates viewing more and more detailed information than would be accessible on a smart phone.

Companies are realizing the market for these apps, and there are dozens of them available. Here, we provide a list of the ten best iPad apps for medical professionals. We include apps for doctors, other practitioners, and students to support their tasks and to educate patients.

1. Muscle System Pro III - This app was developed at Stanford University and has become the standard reference tool for students and professionals. The app is rich in features. It shows 548 isolated muscles alone with their insertion and origin points. To support understanding, it has hundreds of movement animations and pronunciations. For any body part, the user can see a 360 degree rotation along with inferior and superior rotations when applicable. Each muscle features 10 layers of visualization and 3D mapping to bones. For collaboration, a user can draw on any image and share it over email or on social media. It is the most complete musculoskeletal reference for the iPad.
Price: $19.99

2. Upper Respiratory Virtual Lab - This free app is a 3D simulator of the upper airway. It allows users to pinch and drag to explore the visualizations at different levels, and enhances learning by allowing students to interact with the simulation in all three dimensions. The app has detailed information on 34 anatomical structures. Users can tap on target areas in the app and see photographs, illustrations, and clinical information.
Price: Free

3. AirStrip - Cardiology - For clinicians working with patients’ ECG data, airstrip revolutionizes the way they can study and diagnose digitally. When hospitals or ambulances have AirStrip’s technology installed, the app can reproduce the ECG in detail for the clinician to view in real time on their screen. This eliminates the need to try to diagnose on faxed or scanned ECG strips. It also speeds up diagnosis by allowing fast transmission of ECG from the field to the clinician instead of requiring them to wait to receive the strips. AirStrip shows a 10 second view of all 12 leads, and users can see differences down to below 0.5 millimeters. A patient’s ECG history is also available, so a clinician can compare the ECGs over time.
Price: Free

4. Mobile MIM - This app is designed for clinicians to view SPECT, PET, CT, MRI, X-ray and Ultrasound images. Clinicians can to review images, DVH, isodose curves, and contours. It can show 3D depth-shaded movies, and supports annotation and sharing. When a workstation is not available, data can be transmitted to the iPad from MIMcloud (a secure cloud-based application) or MIM 5.1+ workstation software.
Price: Free

5. Rx-Writer - e-Prescribing is faster, more accurate, and more convenient for patients. Rx-Writer supports this for iPad. The free version supports 250 patients, includes 30 complimentary fax pages, and free faxing for 60 days. It has various subscription prices to support more patients and faxes. It includes features to renew all of a patient’s records at once, view medication lists sorted by indication, alphabetically, or chronologically. A clinician can see all the medications a patient is taking and fax prescriptions directly from the iPad. It also includes the entire FDA database for reference.
Price: Free trial, various subscription prices.

6. drchrono EHR - This is a complete electronic health records (EHR) system, in compliance with ONC-ATCB stage 1 Meaningful Use criteria. It has features for making customizable clinical notes and building clinical forms. Clinicians can take advantage of real time speech to text, e-prescribing, and databases for allergies and drug interactions. In addition to notes for documentation, it supports iPad-based photo and video. On the administrative side, the app supports phone call logging, chart printing and viewing, and paperless medical billing. Clinical instant messaging and chat is also included.

As part of the economic stimulus package, users of this app qualify for Meaningful Use EHR incentives under the HITECH Act. This can lead to over $44,000 in tax incentives.
Price: Free base version, subscriptions available for various costs.

7. Blausen Human Atlas HD - This atlas is an app designed to allow patients to learn about their medical conditions in a high resolution environment. It includes 3D animations and 1,200 high definition still images. It also has a glossary of over 1,500 medical terms and includes information on conditions, their causes, and their treatments. For doctors, nurses, educators, students, and care givers, this is an excellent resource to educate patients about their conditions and treatments.

The app has 360 degree rotation of the human body with a whole body view in addition to visualizations of different systems, including the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory system.
Price: $29.99

8. CardioTeach for iPad - When practitioners want to illustrate cardiovascular treatments and issues to their patients, this app is designed to help them illustrate. It uses simple graphics to show normal heart function as well as rhythm, common coronary, and peripheral conditions. Practitioners can mark up anatomical illustrations by hand or by inserting cardiac devices like pacemakers. They can also annotate the images and send the marked up versions to patients over email.
Price: Free

9. OsiriX HD - DICOM is a digital standard for transferring and storing medical images. This award winning app is a full DICOM image viewer for iPad that supports C-STORE SCP, C-MOVE SCU, C-FIND SCU, C-GET SCU, and WADO network protocols. Users can download and manipulate all standard medical image types in their native DICOM format, including ultrasound, CT scanner, MRI, PET, etc. Secure VPN communication is supported as well.

Users can zoom and pan images, adjust contrast and intensity, and measure object sizes, including when zoomed. For large sets of images, there is a slider for browsing through the set.
Price: $29.99

10. SurgiChart - This is a surgical case-log manager for posting, planning, and sharing cases. It is secure, private, and HIPAA-compliant.

The cloud-based service provides a social networking type environment for surgeons to collaborate by annotating their surgical records and sharing them securely with colleagues. Colleagues can create and edit records during and after the surgical process, upon invitation of the surgeon. Updates can be shared immediately with anyone the surgeon gives access to the records.

The app can serve as a surgeon’s case library. Images, notes, records, and videos of each procedure are organized together and viewable. Search over cases is also supported.

Price: Free, monthly subscriptions with various prices

bug of the week

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Humans have long depended on the natural world as the source of our most powerful treatments, from the use of sheep-gut thread to sew wounds up in ancient times, to the bacteria-killing properties of penicillin discovered in the first half of the 20th century. Yet, whether everyday or downright disgusting, some of these remedies can be pretty surprising to Western eyes. In Cambodia, for instance, cattle are sacred animals, and itÕs apparently considered quite healthy to drink cow urine. And, unbelievably enough, the techniques used for modern heart and lung transplants were partly inspired by Soviet experiments in creating two-headed dogs during the 1950s. We list our top ten strangest medical treatments involving animals.

10. Fish Psoriasis Treatments

Fish Psoriasis Treatment

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Originating in Turkey, fish therapy is a relatively common treatment for the symptoms of skin conditions like psoriasis. The patient immerses their affected locations in mineral water containing the fish, which proceed to slough off dead skin with their mouths in their quest for food Ð a bit like a more beneficial school of piranhas! Doctor fish (Garra rufa obtusas), the species used, is believed to nibble away the dead and unhealthy skin while leaving healthy skin untouched. This practice has been banned in some of the US provinces due sanitary concerns but is still legal in the UK and other countries.

9. Bee Venom Arthritis Treatment

bee venom therapy

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Bee stings may be painful, but apparently they can also soothe the joints of those affected by rheumatoid arthritis. A number of alternative medicine systems, including Chinese traditional medicine, use live bee stings to treat the condition Ð as well as shingles and eczema. Amazingly enough, a study by the University of San Paulo in 2010 found that bee venom produces higher levels of inflammation-preventing hormones, supporting claims that practitioners have been making for centuries. Their findings showed that bee stings may not only alleviate the symptoms of arthritis, but may also even prevent it from taking hold in the first place!

8. Snake Massage

Snake Massage

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Anyone interested in a really unconventional massage should check out Ms. Ada BarakÕs snake salon in Israel, which offers clients a sensual back rub from up to six serpents at once. Various species are used, including California and Florida king snakes, corn snakes, and milk snakes, with the larger species being used to treat deep muscle cramps and pain and their smaller counterparts to create a ÒflutteringÓ effect. Ms. Barak said that she got the idea from observing that her friends tended to become more relaxed after holding her collection of snakes for an extended period of time. At $70 a session, itÕs also a bit cheaper than some of the other therapies on this list!

7. Maggot Debridement Therapy

maggot debridement

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In maggot debridement therapy, fly larvae are placed in a wound, where they secrete digestive juices that break down dead flesh while leaving healthy tissues intact. Throughout history, many cultures have used this treatment, from ancient Aboriginal tribes, to surgeons of the Napoleonic era and American Civil War period. As disgusting as it may look, this form of therapy is gaining ground again amongst physicians, thanks to its efficiency in cleaning wounds. A study carried out in Caen, France in 2012 found that patients’ wounds treated with maggots were cleansed significantly faster and had less dead tissue than those treated with more conventional methods, and with no increase in pain. Anecdotal reports that maggots provide significant healing or antibacterial benefits have yet to be supported by scientific evidence, however.

6. Dolphin Therapy

dolphin therapy

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Dolphins are symbols of peace and serenity in many cultures. Small wonder, then, that the act of bonding with them is now used as a treatment for some forms of mental illness. A study by the University of Leicester in 2005 showed that playing in the water with ÒFlipperÓ and his buddies in short sessions over a period of two weeks can provide significant benefits for patients with depression. The treatment has also been used for autistic children who have problems with verbal communication. Interacting with animals can help to alter the dysfunctional social patterns of people with depression, so itÕs not surprising that spending time with one of the most intelligent creatures on the planet can help to raise someoneÕs mood.

5. Ant Mandible Sutures

ant mandible sutures

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The heads of African driver ants boast mandibles that act as seriously strong natural pincers. Presumably for hundreds of years, traditional medicine has been taking advantage of this fact to close open wounds. To put the sutures in place, the healer holds the edges of the gash together and then places the antÕs head lengthwise against the wound. The insectÕs natural instinct is to bite down, which closes the gash, and the healer then twists and breaks off the rest of the body. This very efficient, if primitive, form of emergency medicine is still practiced even today.

4. Leeching

leaching

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Bloodletting with leeches was a very common treatment in medieval and early modern medicine. It was used to prevent inflammation of wounds, relieve fevers, and to treat practically every other kind of ailment. Sessions of bloodletting were often continued until the sufferer had fainted or was on the verge of falling unconscious. Famously, as a cure it was spectacularly harmful, generally causing as many problems to patients as the original condition. However, leeching has now been reintroduced in certain circumstances; for example, as a way of removing congested blood from a finger that has been reattached. It is more effective than many other forms of medical treatment because the leech secretes chemicals with anti-clotting agents, which prevent blood vessels from closing up and atrophying.

3. Fish Swallowing for Asthma

fish swallowing

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Another fish-related cure is practiced by the Bathini Goud brothers in India, who every year treat thousands of visitors with their patented asthma medication Ð administered in the mouth of a live murrel fish. The herbal medicine is a family secret that (so the legend claims) was originally given to the brothersÕ grandfather by a Hindu holy man more than 160 years ago. The movements of the small fish are meant to help alleviate phlegm in the nose and throat and help ease congestion. Three successive cycles of the medicine are prescribed normally, and they are administered 15 days apart. Traditional, maybe, but we still find it pretty hard to swallow!

2. Terrapin Healing

terrapin healing

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As previously mentioned, animals such as cows are associated with healing in Cambodia and are used in a number of different traditional forms of medicine. Terrapins also feature prominently in many Cambodian treatments, both as the ingredients for remedies and in more mystical ways. Why? Because they are believed to be able to cure rheumatism and other bodily ailments by touch. In this picture, a turtle is held to the mouth of a villager in the Kandal province. It is estimated that more than a third of CambodiaÕs native species are used in remedies, but many of the animals are threatened or high priorities for conservation. ItÕs a shame so many traditional cures involve killing the creatures for medicine that may have little more than a placebo effect.

1. Diabetes-Attack Preventing Dogs

diabetes attack prevention dogs

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One well-known fact about dogs is that some of their senses are significantly more acute than those of their human companions. But did you know that manÕs best friend can also detect the symptoms of a diabetic attack? Diabetes Alert Dogs (DADs) can tell from their ownerÕs odor whether their blood sugar is too low or too high, and are trained to warn them either by fetching a special stick or fetching the diabetes kit and bringing it to their owner. This is especially useful for the care of young children who might not wake up if they enter hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia during the night. What’s more, it saves mom and dad from having to set the alarm clock to check on them every couple of hours.

10 Most Memorable Nurses In Cinema

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The depiction of nurses on film has changed greatly over the years: from the heroic candy-stripers of WWII-era flicks, through the bawdy sex comedies of the 1960s and 1970s, to the more heroic characters of the early 90s.

There’s no denying that nurses have roles to play in a wide variety of films: they are
expected to be supportive, caring, and understanding (which makes them good love interests in romantic movies), they are often near the front line of battle in war movies, and they have access to scary medical supplies like lethal drugs and scalpels in horror movies.

Many depictions, however, have been criticized as sexist. Not for nothing has the image of the nurse become associated with naughty Halloween costumes rather than medicine, which make the rare depictions that move beyond the stereotype even more memorable. From Annie Wilkes to Nurse Diesel, we list the 10 greatest movie nurses.

10. Nurse Alex - An American Werewolf in London

Nurse Alex

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Classic comedy-horror An American Werewolf in London is mainly memorable for two things: David Naughton’s incredible transformation sequence (accomplished solely through the prosthetics of effects legend Rick Baker) and the rather comely Nurse Alex, played by Jenny Agutter. Agutter portrays the character as a damaged but caring everywoman who, even though she’s out of her depth dealing with a supernatural werewolf, certainly gives it a good try. She represents the more positive aspects of the UK and London, as a counterweight to the culture clash which the Americans experience in other scenes. Her obvious onscreen chemistry with Naughton also adds to the film.

9. Evelyn Johnson - Pearl Harbor

Evelyn Johnson

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Lambasted by critics for its lack of dramatic tension, acting and historical accuracy, at least Pearl Harbor boasted Kate Beckinsdale. Here she plays Evelyn Johnson, a suspiciously attractive Naval Nurse working in America during WWII. The English actress manages to pull off a credible American accent and fares far better than her fellow actors involved in the love triangle (which takes up most of the movie’s rather long running time). Personally, we’re just surprised that there was an actual reason to watch Pearl Harbor apart from Cuba Gooding Jr.

8. Nurse Diesel - High Anxiety

Nurse Diesel

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Stern, gravel-voiced Nurse Diesel isn’t all she appears in this 1977 Hitchcock spoof; in fact, she’s a murderous maniac with an unhealthy interest in witchcraft (pretty appropriate, considering her appearance). She and her lover Dr Montague are the driving force behind most of the events occurring at the psychiatric ward, including the framing of a Doctor, several murders, and many, many more events that satirize the works of the master of suspense. We suppose Mel Brooks thought it would be ironic to have a staff member at a psychiatric hospital being psychopathic herself – although it’s hardly promoting a positive image of the nursing profession!

7. Greg Focker - Meet the Parents

Greg Focker

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Forget the diminishing returns which came with its sequels: Meet the Parents still stands up as a fresh and original comedy. Male nurse “Greg” Focker (Ben Stiller) is a normal guy who just happens to have an embarrassing name, until he meets his girlfriend’s ultra-paranoid ex-CIA father and everything goes swiftly downhill. The movie was fairly ahead of its time both for featuring a male nurse as a major character and for portraying the discrimination which non-female members of the profession face (there’s a memorably awkward dinner party scene where Greg tells everyone what he does for a living). Sadly the movie series was also the beginning of Robert De Niro’s decline as an actor, though male nurses everywhere should still be thankful that it came along and brought them into the public eye in a pretty positive way.

6. Nurse Ratched - One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest

Nurse Ratched

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Indisputably the evil nurse. Icy Head Nurse Ratched (Louise Fletcher) runs her mental health ward like a police state in the 1975 classic One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. Although she never raises her voice, her contempt for her patients shows in her every look and action, and she’s such a control freak that she spends most of the movie trying to break down Randle McMurphy for his independence and desire to resist the system. Her crowning moment of nastiness is when she prompts the neurotic Billy Bibbit to kill himself by playing on his fear of his mother, purely because she’s afraid of losing her grip on the patients under her care. Truly the face of institutional evil.

5. Major Margaret “Hot Lips” Houlihan - M*A*S*H

Hot Lips Houlihan

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Sally Kellerman played the straight-laced blonde bombshell Margaret “Hot Lips” Houlihan in the 1970 M*A*S*H movie. While the movie would have arguably been a success regardless, no small amount of its appeal came from Houlihan – to say nothing of the fact that most of the comedy in the early part of the film derived from surgeons Hawkeye and Duke’s plots to drive her completely hysterical. Yet, while she was a rather two-dimensional character in the film, she quickly became a more sympathetic foil for the other characters in the TV series.

4. Madam Pomfrey - Harry Potter Series

Madam Pomfrey

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In the Harry Potter books, Madam Pomfrey is the best kind of nurse a magic school could have: stern, a skilled healer, but possessing a heart of pure, magical gold. The film version is equally dedicated to her profession, taking care of dragon bites, petrification and various other magical illnesses with equal skill. Being a nurse is a very difficult job in reality, so it must be even tougher in a school where wounds from Sphinxes and falling off broomsticks are an everyday occurrence. Also, oddly enough, there don’t seem to be any doctors at the school. Maybe more seriously injured pupils get to go to magic ER…

3. Amy Nicholls - Fragile

Amy Nicholls

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A modern take on the heroic nurse character shows up in the 2005 horror movie Fragile, starring Calista Flockhart. The plot concerns a young woman who is transferred to work on an understaffed and decaying maternity ward. As if that weren’t trouble enough, she’s also faced with a malicious spirit that wants to hurt the children under her care. It plays out in a similar fashion to movies like The Ring, but Fragile‘s ghost is far more intimidating: it appears as a girl strapped into a crude medical treatment device that makes her look like a very low-tech cyborg. Creepy! It’s a welcome counterweight to flicks like One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, where medical personnel are portrayed as soulless villains, and it’s also a classic traditional horror movie as well.

2. Cyril - Carry On Matron

Cyril

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The Carry On films came to typify the bawdy English comedy of the 1950s onwards, and one of the gang’s classic settings for hijinks was the hospital. Carry On Matron, released in 1972, features a “cunning” gang of thieves’ attempt to steal a maternity ward’s contraceptives by disguising one of their members as a nurse – in typically hilarious unfeminine drag (clearly they’d never heard of male nursing in the 1970s). Other funny medical characters in the film include Hattie Jacques’ formidable Matron and Kenneth Williams’ shrill and uptight head of the hospital – who believes he is turning into a woman.

1. Annie Wilkes - Misery

Annie Wilkes

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Annie Wilkes from the movie Misery is a loner, a former maternity nurse and an obsessed fan of the popular writer Paul Sheldon. At the beginning of the flick, she “rescues” him from a car wreck and forces him to bring his most famous character back from the dead – with the threat of increasingly painful forms of bodily mutilation if he refuses. Despite being a middle-aged recluse, she makes most of Stephen King’s supernatural villains look tame through the sheer force of her craziness.

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